Coffee Arabica

• Scientific name: Coffea arabica (This is a species of coffee (Rubiaceae), GMT Coffee (Coffea)).
• Vietnamese name: Coffee tea (because this species has small leaves coffee, tree pruning usually low varieties of tea, a common industrial plants in Vietnam).
• English name: Arabica coffee. ICE Futures US supply contracts for both Arabica and Robusta coffees. However, the standard contract Coffee “C” is for Arabica.
Original 1.Nguon and morphological characteristics:
Arabica coffee originated in the highlands of southwestern Ethiopia Jimma and Boma Plateau in southeastern Sudan. However, it was first cultivated by the Arabs
in the 14th century and was widely introduced in the world in the 17th century Arabica
first described by biologist Linnaeus (Sweden) in 1753. Arabica coffee plant mature shrubs form large, upright, about 6 meters high, about 2-3m tall reality, much of VN if left to grow wild can reach 15 meters high. § Coffee trees have branches elongated, symmetrical. Leaves symmetrical, petiole short 0.4 – 1.2 cm. The leaves are oval, pointed at both ends, curly leaf edges, soft and drooping. Length of leaves about 7-20 cm wide by 4-6 cm. Front smooth leaf, green leaf on the inside, green on the underside lighter. The bark is thin, pale and become chapped, rough as old timber pale, hard, heavy and solid. The root system consists of a central root thick, short, plugged deep into the ground and the lateral roots spread around.
Flowers have five petals, white and fragrant. Flower flowers grow in clusters consisting of 2-9 in the leaf axils. Coffee left under fruit flesh, oval. Green fruits turn bright red when ripe (strain Caturra amarello yellow fruit), later changed to dark blue. Elongated 1.0 – 1.8 cm wide and 0.8 – 1.2 cm. Usually containing 2 seeds left somewhat flat and slim, with green, long 0.8 – 1.2 cm. When only one seed grow, it is called peaberry. Caffeine content in the average particle of 1.3%. Caffeine may protect the vegetative parts of the plant from insects, mold and prevent the growth of bacteria and plants near the beans germinate. Arabica coffee is the tetraploid chromosomes (4n = 44) while the coffee species
Others are diploid (2n = 22). Tree
Arabica is characterized by self-pollination should have a higher level of purity different coffee types.
2. Characteristics of growth:
Growing conditions
Arabica coffee trees prefer cool and slightly cooler place. Temperatures suitable for development is khoang18 – 240C. The development of the plant will weaken as temperatures above 250C environment. If the leaf frost coffee and fruit will be damaged. Consequently, Arabica
often grown in the mountains with elevations from 600 – 1500 m. For arabica plants grow well,
normal to above 1,000 meters altitude. Below this altitude, the plants grow very èo uot.Ngoai out, precipitation is suitable for the development of the plant is 1200 – 1500
mm / year. If high precipitation 2500 – 3000 mm will begin detrimental to tree. Coffee trees grow on soil with a pH of 4-8, optimally 5.2 – 6.2. Today, coffee
Arabica is grown in the highlands, subtropics: throughout Latin America,
Central and East Africa, India, and several regions in Indonesia.
Harvest Arabica coffee plant can grow up to 6 m. However in farms,
they often need pruning to keep the height of 2-4 m, favorable for the harvest. 12 months after planting, the tree can reach a height to braking tops. Arabica coffee is grown after about 3 to 4 years, it may begin to harvest. Trees for highest yields in the year 6 – 8. Typically, coffee was considered 25 years old, no longer harvest. In fact, it can still continue to live for another 70 years. For Arabica coffee, only one harvest
in year. However, in Colombia, there is a season and a season to harvest the parts because they have good Arabica varieties. Time from flowering until the fruit is ripe around nest 7-9 times what month and typically harvested in September left annually. In the flowering and fruit burned in this year will continue to blossom in later years. Therefore, when harvesting
Arabica coffee fruit is usually carried out by hand so as not to damage the flower burning and selective quality coffee beans. Arabica coffee harvest labor-intensive.
3. Economic value:
Arabica coffee is the economic value species among the coffee plants. It accounts for 61% of coffee products worldwide. On the market, Arabica
appreciated than Robusta coffee for delicious flavor and contain little content
more caffeine. Additionally, Arabica coffee is processed in the wet method – a method requiring large investments in equipment and create products of high quality selective. Arabica coffee is also called Brazilian Milds if it came from Brazil, Colombian Milds called if coming from Colombia, and called Other Milds if
coming from other countries. Thereby can see Brazil and Colombia are the main exporter of this type of coffee, their coffee quality was also rated highest. High quality only Colombia, Brazil, medium quality binh.Cac other exporting countries include Ethiopia, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, India.
4. The Arabica strain:
Mundo novo, Catuai and more popular because catimo features high output.
Typica, Caturra bourbon and often is used as a sample tasting.
Typica trees Typica cone-shaped and may reach heights of 4.5 m. The party branch
therefore favors a radical 50-700 versus vertical stem. Typica standard quality with low productivity, and almost always create clear and resonant micro yogurt, gradually increasing concentration in higher places. Features tasting of lemon is sour with little
floral and sweet aftertaste lasts.
Bourbon
Bourbon was first explored in Reunion – an island near Madagascar,
originally named Bourbon. Seeds slightly acid taste with the smell of wine, sweet aftertaste. Bourbon is cultivated in the higher areas often have characteristic aromatic fragrance. Broad leaves of bourbon and left relatively small, and weighs up the granules and round
more typica.
Caturra
Caturra was first discovered in Brazil. It is the first commercial plant in Minas Gerais, Brazil in 1937 and then spread throughout Latin America. Caturra is a mutation of bourbon, it can produce good quality fruit and yield
high. To maintain the efficiency of production, must be pollinated trees and pruning continuously. Tree
relatively low and straight to the tree and many tributaries. The leaves are similar
bourbon. Metadata is the acid test of lemon taste markedly, especially in high places
more. Caturra not sweetened with bourbon, but this may change with the frequency and extent of pollination.
Catuai Catuai are hybrids between mundo novo and Caturra. Catuai can be planted at a density
higher and higher yields if pollinated reasonable. Another advantage of Catuai is resistant wind and rain; the loss left vulnerable under the impact
dirty. Catuai no distinct flavor characteristics. However, the sweetness of Catuai could be hit hard by the pollination method. Use organic fertilizers as well as
increase the sweetness and flavor of coffee improves significantly.
Novo Mundo
This is a natural hybrid strain between typica and bourbon. The advantages of mundo novo include high yield, good disease resistance. The taste of coffee is often very little clear sweet and bitter. Nutrition and pollination method will improve the flavor.
Maragogype coffee Race is named after a place in Bahia, Brazil called
“Maragogype”. The taste is very mild coffee with subtle sourness sweetness. Maragogype not easy to roast. The beans must be roasted at a low temperature and slow enough
to create unique taste of its own. Maragogype is a mutant form of the strain
typica and very low productivity.
As a magazine format giap Pacas between Caturra and bourbon. The strain of high yield.
Pacamara
This is a relative of Maragogype. This strain is the result of interbreeding between Maragogype and pacas.
Catimor Being an interbreeding between Timor (Robusta) and Caturra (Arabica). It was first created in 1959 in Portugal. The advantage of it is resistant to rust, a relatively high yield. Quality of catimo tasting quite special because of its acidity with a little sour and slightly salty aftertaste.

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